当前位置:首页 >> 生命科学 >> 生命科学总论
4月22日Nature中文摘要

(选自英国Nature杂志,2010年4月22日出版)


封面故事:动物身体彩色图案揭秘
Generation of a novel wing colour pattern by the Wingless morphogen
动物身体上复杂彩色图案(如贝壳、热带鱼和豹子身上的图案)的形成,对发育生物学
家来说是一个经典谜题。大多数试图解释图案信息的工作都是理论上的,着重于反应-
扩散机制,按照这样的机制,可扩散性本地激发因子(形态发生素)与长距离抑制因子
之间的互动被假设产生稳定的图案。但此前一直没有形态发生素或抑制因子的候选对象
被识别出来。现在,Sean Carroll及其同事以果蝇Drosophila guttifera翅膀上的圆点
图案为模型发现,翅膀上的斑点是由无翼形态发生素诱导的,这种果蝇翅膀上精致的斑
点图案很可能是通过在新的地方选择无翼形态发生素的表达而从更简单的图案形成的。
在本期封面的合成图片中,左翼所示为这种果蝇16个与条纹相关的点及4个条纹间的阴
影;右侧图案将条纹点与条纹间阴影顺势调控元素的活性融合在这种果蝇一只双转基因
个体蛹期翅膀中。(Article p. 1143)图片提供:Thomas Werner, Shigeyuki
Koshikawa & Nicolas Gompel。


胰腺α-细胞可以自发变成β-细胞(The alpa and beta of insulin release)
Conversion of adult pancreatic α-cells to β-cells after extreme β-cell
loss
胰腺中产生胰岛素的β-细胞寿命长,在其生命周期中几乎不复制,但在受伤时或有代
谢需求时则会复制。对β-细胞几乎被完全去除的一个转基因小鼠模型所做研究表明,
成年α-细胞(正常情况下负责产生肽荷尔蒙升血糖素)可以被自发地重新编程为β-细
胞。关于胰腺细胞弹性的这一意外发现,让我们看到了糖尿病的可能治疗方法:要么通
过差异化环境来在体外生成细胞;要么在体内诱导细胞再生。而且,关于选择性杀死细
胞及非选择性地全部杀死细胞的新模型的建立,可能会显示其他器官中以前未被识别出
的细胞弹性。(Article p. 1149; News & Views)


“热海王星”GJ 436b的大气组成(A ‘hot Neptune’ low on gas)
Possible thermochemical disequilibrium in the atmosphere of the exoplanet GJ
436b
在红外波段所做新的观测工作,首次显示了编号为Gliese 436b (GJ 436b)的一颗“热
海王星”太阳系外行星的大气组成。GJ 436b是一颗M矮星的一个伴星,其大气中有高浓
度的一氧化碳。水和痕量二氧化碳也存在,但预计在一个以氢为主的大气层中作为主导
性含碳形式的甲烷的浓度却要比对一颗处在热化学平衡状态的行星所预测的结果小10万
倍。可能的破坏性影响包括垂直混合作用及甲烷的聚合。这些测量结果是当该行星在一
个很短的、只有2.64天的轨道上经过其母性后面时用斯皮策太空望远镜在6个波长获得
的。(Letter p. 1161)


经典精确度极限的突破(Quantum measurement in a tangle)
Nonlinear atom interferometer surpasses classical precision limit /
Atom-chip-based generation of entanglement for quantum metrology
原子干涉仪依靠粒子的波性来工作,用在从确定引力常数到定义时间标准等各种不同的
超高精度测量中。干涉仪的精度一般受限于由实验中所用原子的有限数量所造成的经典
统计(方法的局限性)。本期Nature上两篇论文,介绍了玻色-爱因斯坦凝聚态
(BECs)中的“自旋挤压”在使测量结果比经典统计所允许的程度更精确方面所具有的
潜力。利用一个特制玻色-爱因斯坦凝聚态作为对一台干涉仪的输入,Gross等人打破了
经典的精确度极限。在第二项研究中,Riedel等人通过控制与一个依赖于状态的势能之
间的弹性碰撞之间的相互作用,在一个约束到一个“原子芯片”上的BEC中创造出了类
似的“自旋挤压”。对在一个芯片上 的多颗粒纠缠的这种演示,让我们看到了基于芯
片的便携式原子钟的前景,这样的原子钟也能突破经典的精确度极限。(Letters pp.
1165, 1170; News & Views)


让液体出现超冷状态的一种方法(Supercooling on contact)
Substrate-enhanced supercooling in AuSi eutectic droplets
液体中局部原子排列与晶体中的序列有实质性差别。但当与一个晶体接触时,液体中相
邻原子能模仿其序列,经常触发液体的固化。这种“种子”效应是人们所熟悉的,如当
水接近冰点时所出现的那样以及在晶体成核中所出现的那样。比较意外的是本期Nature
上所介绍的关于一个相反效应的发现:如果一个表面的原子结构与相接触液相的结构相
似,那么该液体不是结晶,而是在远低于其融点时仍保持为液体,这样便实现了超冷状
态。这个现象过去在金-硅共晶液滴中观察到过,这些液滴与金原子按五角形分层排列
在一个硅基质上。这一发现对于关于凝固问题的基础研究及对于相变的实用控制都有意
义。例如,经常用来获得超冷状态的“无容器”方法,也许就可以通过用一种按二十面
体排列的表面来涂覆容器而避免。(Letter p. 1174; News & Views)


生态系统硝酸盐和有机碳浓度之间的反向关系(Ecosystem nitrate flows)
Stoichiometric control of organic carbon–nitrate relationships from soils
to the sea
水环境中硝酸盐的积累(主要由化肥的使用造成)会造成环境问题和公共卫生问题。现
在,Philip Taylor 和 Alan Townsend在土壤、淡水生态系统和海洋(包括经历实质性
氮加载的生态系统)的硝酸盐和有机碳浓度之间发现一个一致的反向关系。他们发现,
这个模式可用碳-硝酸盐比例来解释,该比例通过调控对溶解的有机碳和硝酸盐循环进
行耦合的微生物过程影响硝酸盐积累。这些结果可以为分析全世界生态系统中硝酸盐的
命运及人类干预的影响提供一个可以验证的框架。(Letter p. 1178)


李斯特菌的感染机制(Listeria takes on SUMO)
Listeria monocytogenes impairs SUMOylation for efficient infection
在感染过程中,食源性病原体“单核细胞增生李斯特菌”能利用宿主细胞的大量功能,
包括涉及泛素化和磷酸化的、专门修饰关键蛋白活性的转录后修饰。致病细菌对被称为
“SUMOylation”的泛素样修饰(真核细胞中一个重要过程)的效应在很大程度上仍不
清楚。现在,对被“单核细胞增生李斯特菌”感染的人类细胞和对一个小鼠模型所做的
一项研究表明,其毒性因子listeriolysin O (LLO)通过触发Ubc9(“SUMOylation”机
制中一种必要的酶)的降解诱导细胞中被SUMO化的蛋白水平下降。这项工作说明,李斯
特菌(可能还包括其他病原体)通过降低关键调控蛋白的“SUMOylation”水平来抑制
宿主对感染的反应。(Letter p. 1192; News & Views)


血液流动与血管生成的互动(Angiogenesis: grow with the flow)
MicroRNA-mediated integration of haemodynamics and Vegf signalling during
angiogenesis
在胚胎形成过程中,血管响应血流而被重塑。Nicoli等人介绍了一个基因通道,它能解
释这种机械传感刺激是怎样被与早期发育信号相结合来重塑斑马鱼主动脉弓血管的。血
流诱导的转录因子klf2a是一种内皮细胞特异性微RNA(即miR-126)的感应所必需的,
这种诱导通过抑制Spred1(VEGF信号作用的一个抑制因子)来促进VEGF信号作用和血管
形成。这个发现反映了血流是怎样调控内皮细胞信号作用通道的,也表明一种微RNA是
这个过程当中的一个中央集成点。(Letter p. 1196)


tau蛋白纠结是敌是友?(Tangled tau: friend or foe?)
Caspase activation precedes and leads to tangles
人们主要以从对脑组织尸检获得的证据为依据认为,tau蛋白的异常纤维性沉积(该蛋
白在正常发挥功能时其作用是稳定微管)在阿尔茨海默氏症和tau-相关额颞痴呆症中引
起细胞凋亡和神经退化。现在,对过度表达一种人类tau基因的转基因小鼠中的这些神
经纤维纠结所做的活体多光子成像研究,显示了一个大相径庭的情形。半胱天冬酶激发
(细胞凋亡的一个已知标志)是所观察到的第一个异常,发生在纠结形成之前数小时至
数天。有纠结的神经细胞不是遭受死亡,而是好像寿命还很长,同时半胱天冬酶活性降
低。因此真实情况可能是这样的:引起神经退化的是可溶性tau,而不是纤维性tau。就
以破坏纠结为目标的药物在对抗神经退化中的价值而言,这项工作的意思在很大程度上
取决于神经纤维纠结是一种保护性因子、与疾病无关、还是与慢速作用的神经毒性相
关。(Letter p. 1201)


人FTO蛋白晶体结构已被确定(How FTO targets obesity)
Crystal structure of the FTO protein reveals basis for its substrate
specificity
“脂肪质和肥胖相关基因”(FTO)与体重增加及肥胖症风险相关。FTO蛋白是一种
DNA/RNA脱甲基酶,缺少它的小鼠异常消瘦。现在,人FTO的晶体结构在与单核苷酸
3-meT形成的复合物中已被确定。该结构显示了这种蛋白区分单链和双链DNA的一个新颖
机制。另外,生化分析表明,FTO的C-端(其功能以前未知)是FTO的催化活性所必需
的,它通过与N-端催化域互动来发挥作用。这些结果为了解FTO基质特异性提供了一个
结构基础,并且也为作为潜在抗肥胖药物的FTO抑制因子的合理设计奠定了基础。
(Letter p. 1205)





----------------------
NEWS AND VIEWS
----------------------
Diabetes forum: Extreme makeover of pancreatic [alpha]-cells pp1132-1133
Most insulin-secreting pancreatic [beta]-cells are irreplaceably lost in
type
1 diabetes. In a mouse model, pancreatic [alpha]-cells seem to sacrifice
their
identity to replenish the low stock of [beta]-cells. Two experts discuss
what
this means for understanding the basic cell biology involved and its
relevance
to treating diabetes.
Kenneth S. Zaret and Morris F. White
doi:10.1038/4641132a
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v464/n7292/full/4641132a.html

Quantum measurement: A condensate's main squeeze pp1133-1134
Entanglement between particles permits the quantum uncertainty in one
variable
to be reduced at the cost of increasing that in another. Condensates are an
ideal system in which this technique can be studied.
Charles A. Sackett
doi:10.1038/4641133a
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v464/n7292/full/4641133a.html

Neuroscience: Signals far and away pp1134-1136
The neocortex of the mammalian brain mediates functions such as sensory
perception and ultimately consciousness and language. The spread of local
signals across large distances in this brain region has now been clarified.
Dirk Feldmeyer
doi:10.1038/4641134a
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v464/n7292/full/4641134a.html

Chemistry: Not just any old anion pp1136-1137
Unlike its neighbours on the right-hand side of the periodic table, boron
barely forms an anion. A new trick has been established that allows it to do

so, enabling a highly unusual complex to be prepared.
Kyoko Nozaki
doi:10.1038/4641136a
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v464/n7292/full/4641136a.html

Materials science: A cloak of liquidity pp1137-1138
Droplets of a liquid alloy on a silicon surface can rearrange the surface
atoms so that they mimic the short-range ordering of atoms in the alloy.
Remarkably, this effect inhibits freezing of the droplets.
A. Lindsay Greer
doi:10.1038/4641137a
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v464/n7292/full/4641137a.html

50 & 100 years ago p1138
doi:10.1038/4641138b
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v464/n7292/full/4641138b.html

Infectious disease: Listeria does it again pp1138-1139
Proteins are synthesized by ribosomes, and then commonly undergo further
modifications. A new example of how these host-cell processes can e
subverted
by a pathogenic bacterium has come to light.
Julian I. Rood
doi:10.1038/4641138a
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v464/n7292/full/4641138a.html

Q&A
Q&A: Animal behaviour: Magnetic-field perception pp1140-1142
The ability to perceive Earth's magnetic field, which at one time was
dismissed as a physical impossibility, is now known to exist in diverse
animals. The receptors for the magnetic sense remain elusive. But it
seems that at least two underlying mechanisms exist [mdash] sometimes
in the same organism.
Kenneth J. Lohmann
doi:10.1038/4641140a
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v464/n7292/full/4641140a.html

----------------------
ARTICLES
----------------------
Generation of a novel wing colour pattern by the Wingless
morphogen pp1143-1148
Here, the generation and evolution of the complex spotted wing pattern
of Drosophila guttifera are investigated. The findings show that wing
spots are induced by the Wingless morphogen, and that the elaborate
spot pattern evolved from simpler schemes by co-option of Wingless
expression at new sites. This type of process is likely to occur in
other animals, too.
Thomas Werner, Shigeyuki Koshikawa, Thomas M. Williams and Sean B. Carroll
doi:10.1038/nature08896
Abstract:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v464/n7292/abs/nature08896.html
Article:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v464/n7292/full/nature08896.html

Conversion of adult pancreatic [agr]-cells to [bgr]-cells after extreme
[bgr]-cell loss pp1149-1154
In the pancreas, insulin-producing [beta]-cells are long-lived and generally

replicate seldom. They can do so, however, after increased metabolic demand
or after injury. Here, a new transgenic model is developed in which
[beta]-cells
are nearly completely ablated in mice. If given insulin, these mice survive,

and grow new [beta]-cells. Lineage-tracing shows that these new [beta]-cells

come from [alpha]-cells, revealing a previously disregarded degree of
pancreatic cell plasticity.
Fabrizio Thorel et al.
doi:10.1038/nature08894
Abstract:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v464/n7292/abs/nature08894.html
Article:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v464/n7292/full/nature08894.html

Lateral competition for cortical space by layer-specific horizontal circuits
pp1155-1160
A common anatomical feature of the sensory cortex in many species is that
neurons with similar features cluster into vertically orientated domains
spanning all layers of the cortex. Moreover, neurons in one domain modulate
neurons in neighbouring domains through horizontal connections. A
combination
of techniques has now been used to show that such horizontal projections
suppress layers of cortex devoted to processing inputs, but facilitate
layers devoted to outputs.
Hillel Adesnik and Massimo Scanziani
doi:10.1038/nature08935
Abstract:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v464/n7292/abs/nature08935.html
Article:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v464/n7292/full/nature08935.html

----------------------
LETTERS
----------------------
Possible thermochemical disequilibrium in the atmosphere of the exoplanet
GJ 436b pp1161-1164
Here, the atmosphere of the extrasolar planet GJ 436b is studied during its
'secondary eclipse'. The findings reveal the presence of some H2O and traces

of CO2. The best-fit compositional models contain a high CO abundance and a
substantial methane deficiency relative to thermochemical equilibrium models

for the predicted hydrogen-dominated atmosphere. Disequilibrium processes
such as vertical mixing and polymerization of methane may be required to
explain this small methane-to-CO ratio.
Kevin B. Stevenson et al.
doi:10.1038/nature09013
Abstract:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v464/n7292/abs/nature09013.html
Article:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v464/n7292/full/nature09013.html

Nonlinear atom interferometer surpasses classical precision
limit pp1165-1169
The precision of interferometers [mdash] used in metrology and in the
state-of-the-art time standard [mdash] is generally limited by classical
statistics. Here it is shown that the classical precision limit can be
beaten
by using nonlinear atom interferometry with Bose-Einstein condensates.
C. Gross et al.
doi:10.1038/nature08919
Abstract:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v464/n7292/abs/nature08919.html
Article:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v464/n7292/full/nature08919.html

Atom-chip-based generation of entanglement for quantum
metrology pp1170-1173
Atom chips provide a versatile quantum laboratory for experiments with
ultracold atomic gases, but techniques to control atomic interactions and
to generate entanglement have been unavailable so far. Here, the
experimental
generation of multi-particle entanglement on an atom chip is described. The
technique is used to produce spin-squeezed states of a two-component
Bose-Einstein
condensate, which should be useful for quantum metrology.
Max F. Riedel et al.
doi:10.1038/nature08988
Abstract:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v464/n7292/abs/nature08988.html
Article:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v464/n7292/full/nature08988.html

Substrate-enhanced supercooling in AuSi eutectic droplets pp1174-1177
Supercooling is a phenomenon by which a liquid remains in its fluid phase
well
below its melting point. Supercooling can be inhibited by the presence of a
solid surface, whereby crystalline surfaces cause adjacent atoms in the
liquid
to become ordered, inducing crystal nucleation of the melt. Here it is shown

that a particular surface ordering of gold atoms on top of a silicon
substrate
can stabilize the liquid phase of a gold-silicon eutectic droplet, and thus
enhance supercooling.
T. U. Schu"lli et al.
doi:10.1038/nature08986
Abstract:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v464/n7292/abs/nature08986.html
Article:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v464/n7292/full/nature08986.html

Stoichiometric control of organic carbon-nitrate relationships from soils to

the sea pp1178-1181
The accumulation of nitrate in freshwater and coastal marine ecosystems is
one
of the consequences of the worldwide production of artificial fertilizers.
Here
it is shown that nitrate accumulation in ecosystems shows consistent and
negative
nonlinear correlations with organic carbon availability, along a continuum
from
soils, through freshwater systems and coastal margins, to the open ocean.
This pattern can be explained by carbon:nitrate ratios, which influence
nitrate
accumulation by regulating microbial processes.
Philip G. Taylor and Alan R. Townsend
doi:10.1038/nature08985
Abstract:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v464/n7292/abs/nature08985.html
Article:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v464/n7292/full/nature08985.html

Learning-related fine-scale specificity imaged in motor cortex circuits of
behaving mice pp1182-1186
It is generally accepted that specific neuronal circuits in the brain's
cortex
drive behavioural execution, but the relationship between the performance of
a
task and the function of a circuit is unknown. Here, this problem was
tackled
by using a technique that allows many neurons within the same circuit to be
monitored simultaneously. The findings indicate that enhanced correlated
activity in specific ensembles of neurons can identify and encode specific
behavioural responses while a task is learned.
Takaki Komiyama et al.
doi:10.1038/nature08897
Abstract:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v464/n7292/abs/nature08897.html
Article:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v464/n7292/full/nature08897.html

Genetic analysis of variation in transcription factor binding in
yeast pp1187-1191
Variation in the regulation of gene transcription between individuals is
thought to be a major cause of phenotypic diversity. Here, individual
differences in the binding of transcription-factor proteins are studied.
A well-known transcription factor in the yeast pheromone pathway is used as
an example, and the underlying genetic loci responsible for variation in its

binding are mapped. The study reveals new insights into the mechanisms of
gene regulation, and new regulators of the yeast pheromone pathway.
Wei Zheng et al.
doi:10.1038/nature08934
Abstract:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v464/n7292/abs/nature08934.html
Article:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v464/n7292/full/nature08934.html

Listeria monocytogenes impairs SUMOylation for efficient
infection pp1192-1195
SUMOylation is a post-translational protein modification that affects many
eukaryotic cellular processes. It is shown here that cellular infection with

Listeria monocytogenes induces degradation of one of the essential
SUMOylation
enzymes, Ubc9, through a mechanism that involves a bacterial toxin,
listeriolysin O. This effect on SUMOylation may support efficient infection
by Listeria.
David Ribet et al.
doi:10.1038/nature08963
Abstract:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v464/n7292/abs/nature08963.html
Article:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v464/n7292/full/nature08963.html

MicroRNA-mediated integration of haemodynamics and Vegf signalling during
angiogenesis pp1196-1200
During embryonic development, blood vessels remodel in response to blood
flow.
Here, a genetic pathway is described through which this mechanosensory
stimulus
is integrated with early developmental signals to remodel vessels of the
aortic arch in zebrafish. It is found that the flow-induced transcription
factor klf2a is required to induce the expression of an endothelial-specific

microRNA, activating signalling through the growth factor Vegf.
Stefania Nicoli et al.
doi:10.1038/nature08889
Abstract:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v464/n7292/abs/nature08889.html
Article:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v464/n7292/full/nature08889.html

Caspase activation precedes and leads to tangles pp1201-1204
Fibrillar deposits of tau protein (neurofibrillary tangles) are thought to
cause neuronal death in patients with Alzheimer's disease, and tau-related
frontotemporal dementia. Here, however, the opposite has been found: the
activation of executioner caspase enzymes occurs first, preceding tangle
formation by hours to days. Tangle-bearing neurons seem to be long-lived,
indicating that tangles might be 'off pathway' to acute neuronal death.
Alix de Calignon et al.
doi:10.1038/nature08890
Abstract:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v464/n7292/abs/nature08890.html
Article:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v464/n7292/full/nature08890.html

Crystal structure of the FTO protein reveals basis for its substrate
specificity pp1205-1209
The fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene has been associated with
increased body weight. The FTO protein has DNA/RNA demethylase activity.
Here, the crystal structure of human FTO in complex with the mononucleotide
3-methylthymidine is presented. The structure provides a basis for
understanding the substrate specificity of FTO, and should serve as a
foundation for the design of FTO inhibitors.
Zhifu Han et al.
doi:10.1038/nature08921
Abstract:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v464/n7292/abs/nature08921.html
Article:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v464/n7292/full/nature08921.html

Isolation of the elusive supercomplex that drives cyclic electron flow in
photosynthesis pp1210-1213
During photosynthesis, light energy is used by photosystems I and II to
establish electron flow, which ultimately results in the production of ATP
and NADPH. Two modes of electron flow exist, a linear electron flow and a
cyclic electron flow (CEF). The latter pathway generates more ATP, but its
molecular components have been elusive. Here, a combination of biochemical
and spectroscopic techniques has been used to identify the supercomplex that

drives CEF in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.
Masakazu Iwai et al.
doi:10.1038/nature08885
Abstract:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v464/n7292/abs/nature08885.html
Article:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v464/n7292/full/nature08885.html

Ku is a 5[prime]-dRP/AP lyase that excises nucleotide damage near broken
ends pp1214-1217
Most agents that generate breaks in DNA leave 'dirty ends' that cannot be
joined immediately; instead, intervening steps are required to restore the
integrity of nucleotides at the break. Here it is shown that the
non-homologous
end joining pathway requires a 5[prime]-dRP/AP lyase activity to remove
abasic
sites at double-strand breaks. Surprisingly, this activity is catalysed by
the
Ku70 protein, which, together with its partner Ku86, had been thought only
to
recognize broken DNA ends and to recruit other factors that process ends.
Steven A. Roberts et al.
doi:10.1038/nature08926
Abstract:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v464/n7292/abs/nature08926.html
Article:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v464/n7292/full/nature08926.html

Super-resolution biomolecular crystallography with low-resolution
data pp1218-1222
X-ray crystallography has become the most common way for structural
biologists
to obtain the three-dimensional structures of proteins and protein
complexes.
However, crystals of large macromolecular complexes often diffract only
weakly
(yielding a resolution worse than 4 A), so new methods that work at such low

resolution are needed. Here a new method is described by which to obtain
higher-quality electron density maps and more accurate molecular models of
weakly diffracting crystals.
Gunnar F. Schroder, Michael Levitt and Axel T. Brunger
doi:10.1038/nature08892
Abstract:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v464/n7292/abs/nature08892.html
Article:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v464/n7292/full/nature08892.html

----------------------
TECHNOLOGY FEATURES
----------------------
RNA interference: From tools to therapies p1225
doi:10.1038/4641225b
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v464/n7292/full/4641225b.html

RNA interference: Homing in on delivery pp1225-1228
The scientific community now seems convinced that small RNAs will become
therapies, if new tools can help these large molecules to make it safely
into cells. Monya Baker reports.
Monya Baker
doi:10.1038/4641225a
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v464/n7292/full/4641225a.html

RNA interference: MicroRNAs as biomarkers p1227
doi:10.1038/4641227a
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v464/n7292/full/4641227a.html

RNA interference: Table of suppliers pp1229-1230
doi:10.1038/4641229a
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v464/n7292/full/4641229a.html

----------------------
FUTURES
----------------------
Corrective action p1238
Accidents will happen.
John Gilbey
doi:10.1038/4641238a
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v464/n7292/full/4641238a.html
 

 
    
 


发表评论】 【进入论坛】【关闭页面
相关文章
5月27日Nature中文摘要
5月20日Nature中文摘要
5月17日《美国科学院学报》(PNAS)中文摘要
5月10日《美国科学院学报》(PNAS)中文摘要
5月13日Nature中文摘要
5月6日Nature中文摘要
4月15日Nature中文摘要
摘要
关键字
Nature 中文摘要
 
 
最新专题


近期热点新闻