当前位置:首页 >> 生命科学 >> 生命科学总论
4月15日Nature中文摘要

[自然要览]

(选自英国Nature杂志,2010年4月15日出版)


封面故事:能够抑制Notch1和Notch2的合成抗体
Therapeutic antibody targeting of individual Notch receptors
Notch家族的4个受体是广泛表达的跨膜蛋白,哺乳动物细胞通过它们进行沟通,来调控
细胞命运和生长。Notch信号作用的缺陷与很多癌症相关,包括急性淋巴细胞白血病。
利用“噬菌体呈现技术”,“基因科技公司”一个多学科小组生成了合成抗体,它们是
Notch1 和Notch2的强效和特异性拮抗剂。抗Notch1的抗体在临床前小鼠模型中表现出
抗肿瘤活性,能抑制癌细胞生长和血管生成,并且在培养中也表现出针对人类癌细胞的
活性。Notch1和Notch2的同时抑制会引起小肠毒性,而只抑制其中一个能在很大程度上
避免这一效应,这是相对“泛Notch”抑制药物来说的一个潜在治疗优势。由来自
Salamander Design Studios的Gregóire Vion提供的本期封面图片描绘了一个配体表
达细胞(右)和一个相邻细胞之间的通信——前一个细胞刺激后一个中的Notch信号作
用。受体-细胞膜表达Notches 1 和 2(红色和蓝色);特异性拮抗剂的作用意味着,
只有蓝色信号被传导到细胞核。(Letter p. 1052)


人类癌症基因组研究网络(Cancer genome network)
International network of cancer genome projects
数以百计的个人癌症基因组序列预计将在2010年发表,之后每年将有数以千计发表。
“国际癌症基因组联合体” (ICGC)成立的宗旨是,对与有关成人和儿童主要癌症(共
有50种不同癌症类型和/或亚型)的大规模癌症基因组研究相关的数据进行跟踪。在本
期Nature上,ICGC团队(www.icgc.org)介绍了该项目的相关政策及规划。
(Perspectives p. 993)


与肿瘤进展相关的基因变化(Cancer progression genomics)
Genome remodelling in a basal-like breast cancer metastasis and xenograft
随着最新DNA测序技术的问世,现在有可能对整个一个基因组进行筛选,以寻找与肿瘤
进展相关的基因变化。这种方法已被用来获取来自一位44岁非洲裔美国人乳腺癌患者
(其所患为Basal-型乳腺癌)的四个DNA样本的完整序列, 这四个DNA样本分别是:原
发性肿瘤、周围血液、一个脑转移样本和一个来自原发性肿瘤的“first-passage”异
种移植。突变分析表明,转移肿瘤特定选择来自原发性肿瘤的、含有业已存在突变的一
个亚类的细胞,并且还会形成少量新突变。(Article p. 999; News & Views)


蛇探测红外线所依靠的信号传导机制(Thermal imaging by snakes)
Molecular basis of infrared detection by snakes
只有四种哺乳动物已知拥有能够探测红外线的“第六感”,它既被用于捕食目的,也被
用于热调控目的。这些动物包括三种有远亲关系的蛇(颊窝毒蛇和两种蟒蛇:英文名称
分别为python和boa)及吸血蝙蝠。调控这一感觉的颊窝器官从解剖角度和行为角度都
受到了广泛研究,但对红外线探测能力背后的信号传导机制或所涉及的分子人们却知之
甚少。现在,Gracheva等人发现,有颊窝的蛇依赖离子通道TRPA1来精确探测热量。这
一发现增加了TRPA1家族蛋白所具有的探测功能,这些蛋白在哺乳动物中探测刺激性化
学物质、在昆虫中探测热变化。(Article p. 1006)


能探测离恒星很近太阳系外行星的日冕仪(Exoplanets in the frame)
An image of an exoplanet separated by two diffraction beamwidths from a star
在最近用大型望远镜对附近恒星所做的成像观测研究中,研究人员利用“角差分成像”
方法在恒星HR8799周围发现了三个太阳系外行星。如果要对任何一个与某一恒星的距离
近于这三个的行星进行成像,将需要一个能够剔除恒星光而透过来自附近行星之强度要
弱得多的光的日冕仪系统,还需要一个完美的波峰来限制散射。现在,利用HR8799行星
作为一个测试对象,来自加州理工学院“喷气推进实验室”的一个小组演示了这样一个
正在工作中的系统。它利用安装在帕洛玛山上的200英寸Hale反射器上的一个小孔径
(1.5米)系统上的一台“矢量涡流日冕仪”来工作。所有三个HR8799行星都被探测到
了,最后的噪音接近于衰减星光的光子噪音。将这种方法用在大型地基望远镜上(或用
在小型空间望远镜上),应有可能获得甚至比三个HR8799行星距恒星更近的、非常暗的
太阳系外行星的图像。(Letter p. 1018)


真正随机性的实验演示(True randomness demonstrated)

Random numbers certified by Bell’s theorem
真正的随机性在经典物理中不存在,因为在经典物理中,随机性必须是也许不知道、但
的确存在的力的一个结果。然而,量子世界从内在来讲是真正随机的。这一点难以证
明,因为它不易与噪音和其他不可控制的因素区分开来。现在,Pironio等人提供了关
于量子力学两个基本概念之间一个定量关系的证据,这两个概念分别是纠缠粒子的随机
性和非局域性。他们首先在理论上发现,一个“贝尔不等式”的破坏证明新的随机性的
产生,它独立于任何实现细节。为了阐释该方法,他们随后进行了一个实验,在该实验
中,正如用他们创建的理论工具所证实的那样,产生了42个新的随机位。除了有概念上
的意义外,这项工作对于密码术、对于物理和生物系统的数值模拟都有实践意义。
(Letter p. 1021; News & Views)


断电对互联网络的灾难性影响(Power outages: catastrophic failure of linked
networks)
Catastrophic cascade of failures in interdependent networks
2003年9月28日,意大利发生一次近乎全国性的断电事件(只有西西里幸免),这次事
件使互联网也瘫痪了。Buldyrev等人以这次事件为例(它在近年来全世界发生的几起事
件中具有典型性),分析了这种涉及独立网络的一连串故障何以能够发生。他们发现,
出乎意料的是,更大程度的分布会增加独立网络面对随机故障的脆弱性,这与在单一网
络中所出现的情形是相反的。这一发现突显了在设计稳健网络时考虑独立网络性质的必
要性——如果要想让某一次随机事件不致产生灾难性后果的话。(Letter p. 1025;
News & Views)




太古代海洋温度非常适宜(A temperate Archaean ocean)
Phosphate oxygen isotopic evidence for a temperate and biologically active
Archaean ocean
过去人们曾认为,太古代早期(距今约35亿年前)海洋温度在55摄氏度和85摄氏度之
间。但最近一项研究表明,太古代海洋温度不超过40摄氏度。南非“Barberton
Greenstone Belt”保存完好的岩石含有关于早期生命及32亿到35亿年前海洋化学的一
个地球化学记录。对Barberton沉积物中磷酸盐的氧同位素组成所做的一项新的研究,
为认为太古代海洋温度较低、约在26摄氏度至35摄氏度之间的观点提供了支持。该研究
所取得的发现表明,在太古代地球上有一个很发达的磷周期,同时也涉及生物活动。
(Letter p. 1029)


“佩里戈尔黑松露” 基因组已被测序(The truffle genome)
Périgord black truffle genome uncovers evolutionary origins and mechanisms
of symbiosis
“佩里戈尔黑松露”(一种以共生方式生长在欧洲橡树根上的美食)的基因组已被测
序。这是迄今完成测序的最大、最复杂的真菌基因组。该基因组中基因之少异乎寻常,
但却富含被称为“转位子”的移动遗传元素。与另一种外生菌根类共生真菌“双色蜡
蘑”的序列所做比较,显示了形成对比的两组基因,它们反映了两个不同的分子“工具
包”,这两个“工具包”是独立演化的,以适应根共生的生活方式。松露的栽培是一个
复杂的过程,大多数松露仍是在野生环境中收获的。所以,对与果实形成及共生相关的
基因特征进行分析,可帮助提高作物产量,使黑松露能为更多的人享有。(Letter p.
1033)

一种遗传性脱发症的基因已被发现(The routes of hair growth)
APCDD1 is a novel Wnt inhibitor mutated in hereditary hypotrichosis simplex
毛囊小型化是一个退化过程,它减小上皮细胞和间叶细胞的腔室尺寸,将粗头发变为细
而柔的头发。它最常见于“雄激素源性脱发”,但也是一种被称为“遗传性单纯少毛
症”(HHS)的罕见脱发症的特征。现在,HHS中所涉及的基因在受影响家族中通过基因
关联分析已被识别为APCDD1,该基因编码一种与膜结合在一起的糖蛋白,该蛋白在人的
毛囊中有大量表达。功能研究表明,APCDD1抑制Wnt信号作用,因而是毛囊中信号传导
通道的一个潜在重要构成部分。(Letter p. 1043)


RNA干涉用于人类治疗的潜力得到证实(Human RNAi therapy)
Evidence of RNAi in humans from systemically administered siRNA via targeted
nanoparticles
能够利用系统性提供的短RNA分子和被称为“RNA干涉”的细胞机制来抑制特定基因的能
力,以前已在小鼠模型和非人类灵长类模型中被发现。现在,Davis等人又首次在人类
中发现,一个“短干涉RNA分子”(siRNA)可以利用纳米颗粒被系统性提供给一个固体
肿瘤。该siRNA调控其目标mRNA的定向解理,从而还能降低蛋白水平。这项原理证明研
究证实了该技术作为一种用于人类的治疗方法的潜力。(Letter p. 1067)




----------------------
EDITORIALS
----------------------
Testing time for gene patents p957
A surprising US court decision highlights the need to modernize
gene-patenting practices if patients are to benefit from advances
in genetic research.
doi:10.1038/464957a
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v464/n7291/full/464957a.html

Winners take all pp957-958
Scientific competition is lacking in Japan, and efforts to increase
it are not always best focused.
doi:10.1038/464957b
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v464/n7291/full/464957b.html

Welcome Nature Communications p958
doi:10.1038/464958a
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v464/n7291/full/464958a.html

----------------------
RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS
----------------------
Animal behaviour: Behind enemy lines p960
doi:10.1038/464960a
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v464/n7291/full/464960a.html

Pathology: Bent out of shape p960
doi:10.1038/464960b
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v464/n7291/full/464960b.html

Nanotechnology: Down the tube p960
doi:10.1038/464960c
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v464/n7291/full/464960c.html

Planetary science: Venus vents p960
doi:10.1038/464960d
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v464/n7291/full/464960d.html

Neuroscience: Stressing memory p960
doi:10.1038/464960e
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v464/n7291/full/464960e.html

Physics: Monopoles on demand pp960-961
doi:10.1038/464960f
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v464/n7291/full/464960f.html

Oceanography: Early bloomers p961
doi:10.1038/464961a
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v464/n7291/full/464961a.html

Behavioural genetics: South bee-ch diet p961
doi:10.1038/464961b
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v464/n7291/full/464961b.html

Seismology: On shaky ground p961
doi:10.1038/464961c
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v464/n7291/full/464961c.html

Astrophysics: The odd couple p961
doi:10.1038/464961d
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v464/n7291/full/464961d.html

----------------------
JOURNAL CLUB
----------------------
Journal club p961
Xing Xu
doi:10.1038/464961e
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v464/n7291/full/464961e.html

----------------------
NEWS
----------------------
News briefing: 15 April 2010 pp962-963
The week in science.
doi:10.1038/464962a
http://www.nature.com/news/2010/100414/full/464962a.html

Lab-animal battle reaches truce pp964-964
Biomedical scientists say revised European directive on animal
welfare averts feared disaster for research.
Alison Abbott
doi:10.1038/464964a
http://www.nature.com/news/2010/100413/full/464964a.html

US nuclear policy could boost basic research pp965-965
National laboratories to see funding increases.
Jeff Tollefson
doi:10.1038/464965a
http://www.nature.com/news/2010/100413/full/464965a.html

Japan rolls out elite science funds pp966-967
FIRST scheme targets large grants to world-leading researchers.
David Cyranoski
doi:10.1038/464966a
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v464/n7291/full/464966a.html

Stem-cell funding in sight p967
Meredith Wadman
doi:10.1038/464967a
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v464/n7291/full/464967a.html

What it will take to feed the world pp969-969
Nature talks to the chief executive of France's national agricultural
institute.
Declan Butler
doi:10.1038/464969a
http://www.nature.com/news/2010/100414/full/464969a.html

Pentagon turns to 'softer' sciences pp970-970
US defence research to focus more on biology, cybersecurity and social
sciences to help win conflicts.
Sharon Weinberger
doi:10.1038/464970a
http://www.nature.com/news/2010/100414/full/464970a.html

Panel to take broad view of bioethics pp971-971
President Obama appoints commission to advise on stem cells, clinical
trials and more.
Brendan Borrell
doi:10.1038/464971a
http://www.nature.com/news/2010/100413/full/464971a.html

----------------------
NEWS FEATURE
----------------------
Big science: The cancer genome challenge pp972-974
Databases could soon be flooded with genome sequences from 25,000 tumours.
Heidi Ledford looks at the obstacles researchers face as they search for
meaning in the data.
Heidi Ledford
doi:10.1038/464972a
http://www.nature.com/news/2010/100414/full/464972a.html

----------------------
COLUMN
----------------------
Moment of reckoning pp975-975
Tough choices lie ahead in UK research policy, and they need to be
debated openly in the general election campaign, says Colin Macilwain.
Colin Macilwain
doi:10.1038/464975a
http://www.nature.com/news/2010/100414/full/464975a.html

----------------------
CORRESPONDENCE
----------------------
OPINION
Questioning how different societies respond to crises p977
Patricia A. McAnany and Norman Yoffee
doi:10.1038/464977a
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v464/n7291/full/464977a.html

Students caught up in legal impasse at Mexican institute p977
Aaron Morelos Gomez, Eduardo Gracia Espino and Juan Carlos Garcia Gallegos
doi:10.1038/464977b
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v464/n7291/full/464977b.html

Weighing up the case for telescope site on La Palma p977
Francisco Sanchez
doi:10.1038/464977c
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v464/n7291/full/464977c.html

----------------------
OPINION
----------------------
Let parents decide pp978-979
Twenty years on from the first pregnancies after preimplantation genetic
diagnosis, Alan Handyside argues that informed prospective parents are
largely good guides to the use of the thriving technology.
Alan Handyside
doi:10.1038/464978a
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v464/n7291/full/464978a.html

----------------------
BOOKS AND ARTS
----------------------
OPINION
Beyond the image of the tragic genius p980
Our stereotypical view of mathematicians shifted during the Romantic era
from worldly scholar to tortured soul, explains Jascha Hoffman.
Jascha Hoffman reviews Duel at Dawn: Heroes, Martyrs, and the Rise of
Modern Mathematics by Amir Alexander
doi:10.1038/464980a
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v464/n7291/full/464980a.html

Calibrating the scales of suffering p981
Clive Wynne reviews Do Fish Feel Pain? by Victoria Braithwaite
doi:10.1038/464981a
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v464/n7291/full/464981a.html

Books in brief p982
Joanne Baker
doi:10.1038/464982b
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v464/n7291/full/464982b.html

Artificial reefs to buffer New York pp982-983
Josie Glausiusz reviews Rising Currents: Projects for New York's Waterfront
by
doi:10.1038/464982a
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v464/n7291/full/464982a.html

Q&A: John Sims on mathematical art p983
While pursuing his doctorate in dynamical systems, John Sims was drawn to
explore the connections between mathematics and art. Now curating a
year-long
series of maths-art shows at the Bowery Poetry Club in New York City, the
conceptual artist explains the cultural significance of maths.
Jascha Hoffman reviews Rhythm of Structure: Mathematics, Art, and Poetic
Reflection by
doi:10.1038/464983a
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v464/n7291/full/464983a.html

----------------------
NEWS AND VIEWS
----------------------
Complex networks: The fragility of interdependency pp984-985
A study of failures in interconnected networks highlights the vulnerability
of tightly coupled infrastructures and shows the need to consider mutually
dependent network properties in designing resilient systems.
Alessandro Vespignani
doi:10.1038/464984a
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v464/n7291/full/464984a.html

Genomics: Lessons in complexity from yeast pp985-986
A challenge in biology is to understand complex traits, which are influenced

by many genetic variants. Studies in yeast provide the prospect of analysing

such genetic variation in detail in other organisms, including humans.
David B. Goldstein and Mohamed A. F. Noor
doi:10.1038/464985a
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v464/n7291/full/464985a.html

50 & 100 years ago p986
doi:10.1038/464986a
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v464/n7291/full/464986a.html

Single-molecule analysis: A ribosome in action pp987-988
The manufacture of proteins by ribosomes involves complex interactions of
diverse nucleic-acid and protein ligands. Single-molecule studies allow us,
for the first time, to follow the synthesis of full-length proteins in real
time.
Susanne Brakmann
doi:10.1038/464987a
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v464/n7291/full/464987a.html

Information science: Guaranteed randomness pp988-989
You have received a device that is claimed to produce random numbers, but
you
don't trust it. Can you check it without opening it? In some cases, you can,

thanks to the bizarre nature of quantum physics.
Valerio Scarani
doi:10.1038/464988a
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v464/n7291/full/464988a.html

Cancer: Genomics of metastasis pp989-990
Cancer cells that invade other parts of the body do so by accumulating
genomic aberrations. Analysis of the genomic differences between primary
and metastatic tumours should aid the understanding of this process.
Joe Gray
doi:10.1038/464989a
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v464/n7291/full/464989a.html

Vision: Fisheye views p990

Tim Lincoln
doi:10.1038/464990a
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v464/n7291/full/464990a.html

Behavioural ecology: Ways to raise tadpoles pp990-991
To reduce parental care, just add water [mdash] that's the conclusion of an
intriguing investigation into the extent of the motherly and fatherly
devotion that different species of frog extend to their offspring.
Hanna Kokko and Michael Jennions
doi:10.1038/464990b
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v464/n7291/full/464990b.html

Obituary: Leena Peltonen-Palotie (1952-2010) p992
A visionary in medical genetics.
Gertjan van Ommen
doi:10.1038/464992a
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v464/n7291/full/464992a.html

----------------------
PERSPECTIVES
----------------------
International network of cancer genome projects pp993-998

doi:10.1038/nature08987
Abstract:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v464/n7291/abs/nature08987.html
Article:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v464/n7291/full/nature08987.html

----------------------
ARTICLES
----------------------
Genome remodelling in a basal-like breast cancer metastasis and
xenograft
pp999-1005
Massively parallel DNA sequencing allows entire genomes to be screened for
genetic
changes associated with tumour progression. Here, the genomes of four DNA
samples
from a 44-year-old African-American patient with basal-like breast cancer
were
analysed. The samples came from peripheral blood, the primary tumour, a
brain
metastasis and a xenograft derived from the primary tumour. The findings
indicate
that cells with a distinct subset of the primary tumour mutation might be
selected
during metastasis and xenografting.
Li Ding et al.
doi:10.1038/nature08989
Abstract:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v464/n7291/abs/nature08989.html
Article:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v464/n7291/full/nature08989.html

Molecular basis of infrared detection by snakes pp1006-1011
Snakes are notoriously apt at generating 'thermal images' of predators or
prey.
The underlying physiology has been unclear, although in snakes such as
pythons,
vipers and boas, infrared signals are initially received by the pit organ.
Here
it is shown that pit-bearing snakes rely on heat detection by the ion
channel
TRPA1. This extends the sensory repertoire of the TRPA1 family of proteins,
which
detect chemical irritants in mammals and thermal variations in insects.
Elena O. Gracheva et al.
doi:10.1038/nature08943
Abstract:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v464/n7291/abs/nature08943.html
Article:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v464/n7291/full/nature08943.html

Real-time tRNA transit on single translating ribosomes at codon
resolution
pp1012-1017
Single-molecule studies allow biological processes to be examined one
molecule at
a time, as they occur. Here, zero-mode waveguides have been used to
concentrate
reactions in zeptolitre-sized volumes, making it possible to study real-time

translocation by the ribosome. The binding of transfer RNAs (tRNAs) to the
ribosome could be followed; the results show that tRNA release from the exit

site is uncoupled from tRNA binding to the aminoacyl-tRNA site.
Sotaro Uemura et al.
doi:10.1038/nature08925
Abstract:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v464/n7291/abs/nature08925.html
Article:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v464/n7291/full/nature08925.html

----------------------
LETTERS
----------------------
An image of an exoplanet separated by two diffraction beamwidths from a
star
pp1018-1020
Three exoplanets around the star HR 8799 have recently been discovered by
differential imaging with large telescopes. In such cases, bright scattered
starlight means that large angular offsets of the star are required for
high-contrast imaging of the planets. Imaging at small angles requires a
technique for reducing starlight and associated noise while still
transmitting
light from the planet. Here such a technique is described: all three HR 8799

planets have been detected using a vector vortex coronagraph on a
small-aperture system.
E. Serabyn, D. Mawet and R. Burruss
doi:10.1038/nature09007
Abstract:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v464/n7291/abs/nature09007.html
Article:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v464/n7291/full/nature09007.html

Random numbers certified by Bell’s theorem pp1021-1024
Here it is shown, both theoretically and experimentally, that non-local
correlations between entangled quantum particles can be used for a new
cryptographic
application [mdash] the generation of certified private random numbers
[mdash]
that is impossible to achieve classically. The results have implications for

future device-independent quantum information experiments and for addressing

fundamental issues regarding the randomness of quantum theory.
S. Pironio et al.
doi:10.1038/nature09008
Abstract:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v464/n7291/abs/nature09008.html
Article:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v464/n7291/full/nature09008.html

Catastrophic cascade of failures in interdependent networks pp1025-1028
Modern networks are rarely independent, instead being coupled together with
many
others. Thus the failure of a small fraction of nodes in one network may
lead
to the complete fragmentation of a system of several interdependent
networks.
Here, a framework is developed for understanding the robustness of
interacting
networks subject to such 'cascading' failures. Surprisingly, a broader
degree
distribution increases the vulnerability of interdependent networks to
random failure.
Sergey V. Buldyrev et al.
doi:10.1038/nature08932
Abstract:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v464/n7291/abs/nature08932.html
Article:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v464/n7291/full/nature08932.html

Phosphate oxygen isotopic evidence for a temperate and biologically active
Archaean ocean pp1029-1032
It has been thought that ocean temperatures during the early Palaeoarchaean
era
(around 3.5 billion years ago) were 55-85 [deg]C. But a recent study
indicated
that the temperatures might be no higher than 40 [deg]C. Here, studies are
reported
of the oxygen isotope compositions of phosphates in sediments from the
3.2-3.5-billion-year-old Barberton Greenstone Belt in South Africa. The
findings
indicate a well-developed phosphorus cycle and evolved biological activity
in an
Archaean ocean with temperatures of 26-35 [deg]C.
Ruth E. Blake, Sae Jung Chang and Aivo Lepland
doi:10.1038/nature08952
Abstract:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v464/n7291/abs/nature08952.html
Article:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v464/n7291/full/nature08952.html

Perigord black truffle genome uncovers evolutionary origins and mechanisms
of
symbiosis pp1033-1038
The genome of the black truffle - one of the most popular truffles on the
market -
has been sequenced. This is the first genome of a symbiotic ascomycete to be

analysed. Comparison with the genome of another ectomycorrhizal symbiotic
fungus
indicates that a genetic predisposition to symbiosis evolved differently in
ascomycetes and basidiomycetes. The study also offers insight into fungal
sex and fruiting.
Francis Martin et al.
doi:10.1038/nature08867
Abstract:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v464/n7291/abs/nature08867.html
Article:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v464/n7291/full/nature08867.html

Dissection of genetically complex traits with extremely large pools of yeast

segregants pp1039-1042
Complex heritable traits [mdash] such as human height and many human
diseases
[mdash] are caused by multiple genetic loci, each with small effects. It is
hard to identify such loci, however, because of a lack of statistical power.

Now, a method has been developed to overcome this problem. The method has
been
applied to chemical resistance traits and mitochondrial function in yeast,
and
has identified loci for each of these phenotypes.
Ian M. Ehrenreich et al.
doi:10.1038/nature08923
Abstract:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v464/n7291/abs/nature08923.html
Article:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v464/n7291/full/nature08923.html

APCDD1 is a novel Wnt inhibitor mutated in hereditary hypotrichosis
simplex
pp1043-1047
Hereditary hypotrichosis simplex is a rare form of hereditary hair loss in
humans, where the hair follicle is miniaturized. Now, the gene involved has
been identified, using genetic linkage analysis in three affected families.
The gene, APCDD1, is expressed in human hair follicles. It encodes a
previously
unknown membrane-bound glycoprotein that inhibits signalling through the Wnt

protein and functions upstream of [beta]-catenin.
Yutaka Shimomura et al.
doi:10.1038/nature08875
Abstract:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v464/n7291/abs/nature08875.html
Article:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v464/n7291/full/nature08875.html

Functional genomic screen for modulators of ciliogenesis and cilium
length
pp1048-1051
Primary cilia are tiny hair-like structures expressed on the surface of
eukaryotic
cells. They participate in a range of processes, such as sensing the
extracellular
environment and regulating signalling pathways during development. Here, a
functional genomic screen is presented that used RNA interference to
identify
human genes involved in controlling ciliogenesis. Several positive and
negative
ciliogenesis modulators with broad-ranging functions were found.
Joon Kim et al.
doi:10.1038/nature08895
Abstract:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v464/n7291/abs/nature08895.html
Article:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v464/n7291/full/nature08895.html

Therapeutic antibody targeting of individual Notch receptors pp1052-1057
The four receptors of the Notch family are transmembrane proteins through
which
mammalian cells communicate to regulate cell fate and growth. Aberrant
signalling
through each receptor has been linked to disease, so the Notch pathway is a
compelling drug target. But current drugs cannot distinguish between the
different Notch proteins. Here, phage display technology has been used to
generate highly specialized antibodies, enabling the functions of Notch1
and Notch2 to be discriminated in humans and mice.
Yan Wu et al.
doi:10.1038/nature08878
Abstract:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v464/n7291/abs/nature08878.html
Article:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v464/n7291/full/nature08878.html

Chemoprevention of colorectal cancer by targeting APC-deficient cells for
apoptosis pp1058-1061
Cancer 'chemoprevention' uses substances to reverse, suppress or prevent the

initial phase of carcinogenesis or the progression of neoplastic cells to
cancer cells. Here it is shown that treatment with TRAIL proteins and
all-trans-retinyl acetate can cause the death, in vitro and in vivo, of
premalignant cells deficient in the adenomatous polyposis coli gene. Normal
cells are unaffected. Selectively eliminating premalignant tumour cells in
this way is thus an effective method for chemoprevention.
Ling Zhang et al.
doi:10.1038/nature08871
Abstract:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v464/n7291/abs/nature08871.html
Article:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v464/n7291/full/nature08871.html

Migrastatin analogues target fascin to block tumour metastasis pp1062-1066
Analogues of migrastatin [mdash] a natural product secreted by Streptomyces
[mdash] are potent inhibitors of tumour cell migration and metastasis. Here,

the underlying mechanism is elucidated: these migrastatin analogues target
and inhibit the activity of the actin-bundling protein fascin. Hence
proteins
such as fascin might present new molecular targets for cancer treatments.
Lin Chen et al.
doi:10.1038/nature08978
Abstract:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v464/n7291/abs/nature08978.html
Article:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v464/n7291/full/nature08978.html

Evidence of RNAi in humans from systemically administered siRNA via targeted

nanoparticles pp1067-1070
It has previously been shown in mice and non-human primates that
systemically
delivered short RNA molecules can inhibit gene expression. Here it is shown
that a short interfering RNA (siRNA) can be systemically delivered, using
nanoparticles, to a solid tumour in humans. The siRNA mediates cleavage of
its target mRNA, thereby also reducing levels of the encoded protein. This
proof-of-principle study confirms the potential of this technology for
treating human disease.
Mark E. Davis et al.
doi:10.1038/nature08956
Abstract:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v464/n7291/abs/nature08956.html
Article:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v464/n7291/full/nature08956.html

Long non-coding RNA HOTAIR reprograms chromatin state to promote cancer
metastasis pp1071-1076
Large intervening non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) are pervasively transcribed in
the genome. Here it is shown that lincRNAs in the HOX genetic loci are
dysregulated during breast cancer progression in human cells, and that
expression
levels of the lincRNA called HOTAIR can predict whether a tumour will
metastasize.
Moreover, enforced expression of HOTAIR can lead to altered patterns of
binding of the PRC2 protein to the genome.
Rajnish A. Gupta et al.
doi:10.1038/nature08975
Abstract:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v464/n7291/abs/nature08975.html
Article:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v464/n7291/full/nature08975.html

Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase/phosphatase may be an ancestral
gluconeogenic
enzyme pp1077-1081
Thermophilic bacteria and archaea use carbon dioxide or carbon monoxide as a

starting material for making the organic substances used in cellular
molecules.
A central enzyme in this pathway has now been discovered, namely fructose
1,6-bisphosphate aldolase/phosphatase. This enzyme might represent the
ancestral
gluconeogenic enzyme.
Rafael F. Say and Georg Fuchs
doi:10.1038/nature08884
Abstract:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v464/n7291/abs/nature08884.html
Article:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v464/n7291/full/nature08884.html

CpG islands influence chromatin structure via the CpG-binding protein
Cfp1
pp1082-1086
Most human gene promoters are embedded within CpG islands that lack DNA
methylation and coincide with sites at which histone H3 lysine 4 is
trimethylated
(H3K4me3 sites). Here, a zinc-finger protein, Cfp1, is found to be
associated
with non-methylated CpG islands and H3K4me3 sites throughout the genome in
the mouse brain. A primary function of non-methylated CpG islands might be
to genetically determine the local chromatin modification state by
interaction with Cfp1 and perhaps other CpG-binding proteins.
John P. Thomson et al.
doi:10.1038/nature08924
Abstract:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v464/n7291/abs/nature08924.html
Article:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v464/n7291/full/nature08924.html

 

 
    
 


发表评论】 【进入论坛】【关闭页面
相关文章
5月27日Nature中文摘要
5月20日Nature中文摘要
5月17日《美国科学院学报》(PNAS)中文摘要
5月10日《美国科学院学报》(PNAS)中文摘要
5月13日Nature中文摘要
5月6日Nature中文摘要
4月22日Nature中文摘要
摘要
关键字
中文摘要
 
 
最新专题


近期热点新闻